Yes, there are two basic types of challenges: (1) challenges for cause and (2) peremptory challenges. Challenges for cause occur when it is clear that a juror is too biased or predisposed in a case and could not decide the case impartially. There is no limit to for cause challenges but usually it has to be pretty clear that the prospective juror is biased.
Peremptory challenges are those in which an attorney has a gut feeling that someone would not make a good juror for his side. The court sets the number of peremptory challenges in a case or the number may be established by a state’s rules of civil procedure.