A therapeutic method of reducing, relieving, and preventing pain. There are numerous methods of pain management, including nonmedication techniques and pain relief medications. Most people who have regular or chronic pain benefit from a combination of methods tailored to address their individual needs and circumstances. Keeping the neuromuscular symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in check and treating depression and anxiety aggressively are the most important factors in minimizing discomfort. Taking anti-parkinson’s medications as prescribed and scheduled and striving to maintain as much function as possible are the most effective ways to do this.
Nonmedication techniques can be as effective as medication for some causes and kinds of pain. physical therapy modalities such as diathermy (heat therapy), general stretching exercises, and specific exercises to strengthen muscle groups according to individual need improve stability and function. Therapeutic massage relaxes stiffened muscles, and the structured movements of tai chi and yoga improve flexibility and range of motion. These methods target the causes of muscle and joint pain. meditation and biofeedback, approaches that integrate the body and the mind, often are effective for reducing chronic discomfort and pain. Regular physical activity and exercise such as walking and swimming help sustain balance, coordination, and mobility. These methods have the added benefit of improving overall well-being and reducing stress.
Many common pain relief medications are effective for pain management in a person who has Parkinson’s disease, although possible interactions with anti-Parkinson’s medications must be considered. Generally, over-the-counter medications such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen do not cause interactions. Narcotics (such as codeine, hydrocodone, and oxy-codone) are a less desirable option for people with Parkinson’s as they can worsen daytime somnolence and constipation, which is already a likely problem as a result of the disease’s disruption of smooth muscle function in the digestive tract or as a side effect of medications such as anticholiner-gics. Muscle relaxants and tricyclic antidepressants also sometimes relieve pain. Pain medications taken for chronic pain work best when they are taken regularly rather than after pain becomes noticeable.